| Author’s name: Chawan Chevarunotai
| Professor: Asst.Prof. Paron Chatakul, Mr. Munggorn Chaijaroenmaitre
| Chulalongkorn University
In Recently, From survey and verification by Thailand Committee of Education and Investigate in Mining Problems indicates that The 351-acre former limestone quarry site in Khao Rad, laid on Kanchanaburi province in western Thailand has resulted to citizens health problems and poor ecological services such as air pollution, water contamination and soil infertility in Maeklong River Watershed for 15 years. As a consequence, Thailand Royal Forest Department, which owns this area provides Thailand Botanical Garden Organization to conserve and rehabilitate geological change processes and severe rockslide problem. Both botanical and geological evidence show that reclamation with biomass, re-vegetation, natural succession and bio-engineering are main methods that are proposed in this project and set to renewal limestone horticultural society of plants with botany conditions in order to create recreational-educational center to become The New Botanical – Geological park.
To efficiently progress the project, it is essentially needed to understand the geological process on country’s west forest and other related cognitions in various fields to revive both a natural abundance and environment condition without leaving negative consequences to ecosystem and communities.
The situation of limestone geology area has a specific geomorphological structure, which is always altering in an unpredictable way. Processes of geological change includes 3 stages. First, Karst stage: Ground water and surface water will react with limestone compound forming plain area. Second, Changing stage: Time passes, earth crust uplifted and ground water declined, resulted in the changing of flow direction which formed valley and hills area. Last, Mogote stage: The strongest part of limestone that is not effected from the occurrence forms a tower-shaped hill called ‘Mogote’. However, Limestone quarry interrupts these processes and the area is divided in to 2 parts as the following: the area consisted of limestone which is stable, functional and applicable for design are called ‘Re-karst area’ Nevertheless, the area contained pottery stone has dynamic landscape and might have stalactite and rock slide are called ‘Re-changing area’. The design in this part must be done carefully.
All of these conditions lead to design this project by resurrection concept that includes revival, reclamation and conservation strategies referring to research and revive biodiversity for daily life benefits that leads to development of learning space, raising people’s awareness about environment and understanding a natural processes.
By analysis the site potentials on each zoning, The planning and designing focuses on reclamation that is divided into 5 phases:
1) renovate existing structures to turn them into the glasshouse and operate research area and natural environment garden to create biomass for other areas.
2) adjust water flow direction and soil sediment trap to increase soil moisture for botanical area.
3) blanket net in rockslide area and transmute crushed pottery rock to planting materials for taxonomy garden.
4) trap sediment and protect soil erosion by bio-engineering techniques for geological field.
5) As a result of the operation, the project can be fully opened within 15 years.
Therefore, from the comprehensive study of geological, environmental conditions and disposal of phasing, the design is composed of 5 main sections: Botanical garden, Limestone geological learning field, Plants society research center, Natural environment display garden and Reactivate biodiversity ecological resource area. The attitude of designing and planning emphasize a dynamic and flexibility of usage and accelerate the reclamation time by botanical, ecological and geological process.
The expected advantages of this project are:
1) To increase quality of local people’s life and environment, which would have positive effects on human being and ecosystem.
2) To become South East Asia revitalizing plants on geological brownfield plants society research and analysis center.
3) To become Botanical and Geological park, providing Western Thailand Florist region plants collection. Moreover, the development and reclamation in this area creates a new ecosystem that is expanding western conservative-forest which is limestone plants society on karst geological area and largest ecosystem in Thailand. The action mentioned above impacts the quality of life, economy, virtue of environment, local education and others which is the basis of life.